Friday, January 31, 2020
Mangrove Analysis Report Essay Introduction Coastal mud flats throughout the tropics carry a vegetation of mangrove swamp, which is particularly luxuriant in the wet tropics, such as Cairns itself. These evergreen trees and shrubs share similar habitat preferences, and a similar appearance to the untrained eye. This report will explain my findings in this biological topic, and describe the adaptations the mangroves have developed in order to survive the harsh location of estuaries and wetlands; the typical layout of mangrove communities through an original transect; representative specimen samples and descriptions; and also the typical state of the water and thus the environment through regular water samples. Adaptations The estuaries, salt marshes, swamps and wetlands mangroves live in represent hostile environments to mainland vegetation and have forced upon mangrove evolution a few peculiar adaptations such as tolerance of salty water, the development of pneumatophores (breathing roots), and a marked tendency to germinate their seeds on the tree. These features have consequently enabled mangroves to dominate the muddy coasts, leaving few competitors and only a small percentage of non-mangroves surviving in the harsh conditions, most of the non-mangroves, as you will find, being part of the myrtle family. Because of salt water and oxygen-deficient soil, many mangrove trees have roots growing above the ground. The names of these roots are: prop roots, buttress roots, pneumatophores or knee roots, and surface roots. TheseÃ project above the mud and have small openings (lenticels) through which air penetrates and oxygen is absorbed through the spongy tissue to the roots beneath. Estuaries and swamps impose very high water salinity. In fact salinity percentages can stand on average 3%s as high as seawater! For this purpose, mangroves have acquired three ways to survive with high and variable quantities of salt in their environment. Some trees absorb the salt then secrete it through a gland at the indented apex of the midrib. The Lumnitzera Racemosa is only an example. Other mangroves absorb the salt, then direct it to old leaves or bark that are soon to be lost from the plant, while others actually exclude salt entirely from their tissues by filtering all input in the roots. The sap of these types of species is therefore almost of the same salinity as common mainland plants. Examples of these organisms are the Ceriops Tagal and the Rhizophora Stylosa or Red Mangrove, part of the very common Rhizophoraceae family. Another particular adaptation of many mangroves is seed and fruit dispersal by water. The swamp plants have waterborne seeds, which are buoyant being enclosed in air-containing fruits, like all species of Rhizophoraceae. For some, the seeds are dispersed by water, making the buoyancy of the fruit crucial. They lie horizontal in seawater, and on reaching brackish water, turn vertically roots down and buds up. The fruit then lodges itself in the mud along the trip, and quickly produce additional roots, and begin to grow as a shoot. But in other cases, the seed produces roots while still attached to the parent tree. This long embryonic root emerges from the seed and grows rapidly downward, still hanging from the parent. This ensures that when the seed falls, the root is in the correct position to be driven into the mud, and send up new shoots. This germination method is called viviparity, or more accurately, viviparous seedling. Hostile Environment As observed in the table opposing, salinity records are extremely high, ranging from 3.3% to 3.65%. This causes the mangroves to have troubleÃ regulating water/salt input, although they are better adapted to the conditions than non-mangroves and mainland plants. The average pH level is 6.25, which remains fairly stable. Average salt density is 1.023 grams/cm3, and is just as representative as the salinity percentages. Common Mangroves The most common mangrove trees in the estuaries visited in personal and school time trips were as following, in decreasing order of estimated frequency: Ã ·Rhizophora stylosa Ã ·Grey Mangrove (Avicennia marina) Ã ·Orange Mangrove (Bruguiera gymnorrhiza) Ã ·Lumnitzera racemosa Ã ·Milky Mangrove (Excoecaria agallocha) Ã ·Myrtle Mangrove (Osbornia octodonta) Amongst others, these species will be presented and analysed on the following pages, giving specific labelling, descriptions, and adaptation discussion for each specimen. Excoecaria agallocha Analysis: Ã ·Leaf description: The leaves are alternate, simple, oval, and shorter than 10 cm; they have a shiny surface and a pointed tip. Some can have slightly toothed edges. Ã ·Stem description: round, brown, flexible; with brown, rough bark. Ã ·Sap description: Poisonous white sticky latex is exuded from broken surfaces. Ã ·Root type: surface root. Ã ·Flower type and description: Male inflorescence hangs narrow and furry, while the female inflorescence is green, beady, 1-4 cm long. Ã ·Fruit description: three-lobed fleshy capsules, green to brown. Ã ·Seedling type: viviparous seedling. [By Nathania Burrie] [User: TaniaSmartTwit] [[emailprotected]] [March 2002] This species of mangrove has developed horizontal rows of corky-brown air pores on the trunk, which are called lenticels. These aid oxygen input by allowing air to enter the plant tissues on a higher part of tree, that has less risks of clogging by soil or oils, than the roots. Indeed, the root system used by this mangrove is the surface root, which only allows oxygen to penetrate at low tide, when the roots are revealed to the air, if they are even emerged from the mud. On a reproduction point of view, the seeds are live and enclosed in three-lobed shells that contain air, and are therefore buoyant. The shell is then carried away with the incoming tide and under the factors of water salinity and temperature, will deteriorate more or less quickly, until the buds anchor onto an ideal shore. This particular mangrove also secretes a blinding poison from any injured surfaces to protect itself from external aggressors. This sap is irritating to the skin, and some derivations of the genus can even cause blisters. However, this defence mechanism is only effective against aggressors once they have learnt a lesson. Ceriops tagal Analysis: Ã ·Leaf description: The leaves are a waxy yellow-green, shorter than 8 cm, opposite, simple, oval; they have a pointed apex, and occur in clusters at the end of the branch. Ã ·Stem: average. Ã ·Root type: buttress root, and knee roots. Ã ·Flower description: small green to brown buds with five green petals. Ã ·Fruit description: small viviparous fruit enclosed in small, brown, beady capsules. Ã ·Seedling type: viviparous seedling. [By Nathania Burrie] [User: TaniaSmartTwit] [[emailprotected]] [March 2002] Just like the Bruguiera and the Rhizophora, this species of mangrove uses a different type of viviparous germination from the Excoecaria agallocha. Embryonic roots emerge from the seeds and grow downward. When the seeds fall, they are driven into the mud, and send up new shoots. To prevent burning, the leaves are often orientated straight up in the air to avoid strong midday sunlight. Osbornia octodonta Analysis: Ã ·Leaf description: 2-3cm long, opposite, simple. Ã ·Stem: red tinge to the base of the leaves, grey and stringy bark. Ã ·Root type: surface roots. Ã ·Flower description: roundish white flowers with a red nucleus, usually 1cm wide. Ã ·Fruit description: a bit larger than the flower, similar shape. Ã ·Seedling type: non-viviparous. [By Nathania Burrie] [User: TaniaSmartTwit] [[emailprotected]] [March 2002] Being both of the Myrtaceae family the Myrtle mangrove and the eucalyptus tree share the very same fresh smell when the leaves are crushed. The seeds of the Myrtle mangrove are not viviparous, so the species cannotÃ spread to a vast surface area using the water-dispersed viviparous propagules as mentioned earlier. Interestingly, however, the crushed leaves can be rubbed on the skin as an insect repellent! Acrostichum speciosum Analysis: Ã ·Leaf description: Exceptionally, the leaves of this mangrove are fronds, and are known to reach up to 2m long! The smaller leaflets, though, are up to 15cm long. Leaves are alternate. Ã ·Stem description: yellowish-green, supple. Ã ·Root type: normal fibrous root. Ã ·Flower type and description: Ferns do not produce flowers, but have spores on the underside of the leaf instead. Ã ·Fruit description: Ferns do not produce fruit either. The Mangrove fern is the only fern that inhabits the mangal forest floor. In fact, all other ferns found in the mangroves are epiphytes (see definition chapter). Characteristically of ferns, this species does not have any flowers or fruit, but spores instead. Rhizophora stylosa Analysis: Ã ·Leaf description: simple, opposite, usually 10cm long or more, the undersides are of a lighter green dotted with brown speckles. They are gathered in clusters at the end of the branch. Ã ·Bark description: rough, brown, and red when scraped (thus the common name Red Mangrove) Ã ·Root type: prop roots or stilt roots (thus the name Spider Mangrove) Ã ·Flower type and description: small white, four-lobed flowers that are pollinated by wind or insects. Ã ·Fruit description: viviparous propagules, generally measuring 30cm or up to 40cm. Ã ·Seedling type: viviparous seedling. [By Nathania Burrie] [User: TaniaSmartTwit] [[emailprotected]] [March 2002] The Rhizophora stylosa has also developed lenticels on the trunk, just like the Excoecaria agallocha. This helps to allow air into the plant when the prop roots are submerged at high tide or in the anaerobic mud. The Red mangroves reproductive mechanism is viviparous, which represents a strong advantage compared to the majority of mangroves presented in this report. Avicennia marina Analysis: Ã ·Leaf description: simple, opposite, green, epileptic leaves of roughly 10cm, with a silver underside, and salt secreting glands. Ã ·Bark description: dull, grey-white bark (thus the common name Grey mangrove and White mangrove) Ã ·Root type: pneumatophores. Ã ·Flower type and description: tiny golden, four-petalled flowers. Ã ·Fruit description: The fruits measure from 1 to 2cm in length, are green, and faintly furry. Ã ·Seedling type: non-viviparous. Pneumatophores are air vessels; a type of mangrove root that grow above the substratum or mud, and perpendicular to the main root underground. They transport oxygen, which is vital, into the tissues of the plant. But pneumatophores are just as susceptible to clogging as other pores in the other types of roots when the tide is high, or when parasites feed into the pores of the root. Bruguiera gymnorrhiza Analysis: Ã ·Leaf description: simple, opposite, large leaves (10 to 20cm), with a slightly curled side and a pointed tip, occurring in clumps at the end of branches. Ã ·Bark description: The Bark is of a very dark brown, with a coarse, rough texture. Ã ·Root type: knee roots. Ã ·Flower type and description: 8 to 16-lobed red flowers, approximately 4cm long and 3cm diameter. Ã ·Fruit description: green, wide viviparous propagules, average 15cm long. Ã ·Seedling type: viviparous seedling. The viviparity of this species is surely an advantage, and obviously a way to adjust to the harsh environment the travelling seeds would otherwise perish in. Indeed, the propagules are nourished on the tree, accumulating the carbohydrates and other compounds required for later independent growth. The pre-germinated seeds benefit from the achievement of a structural complexity that will help it acclimate to extreme physical conditions that might otherwise prevent normal seed germination. Any other mangrove that uses this reproductive mechanism benefits from the same advantages. Knee roots are simply another type of root channels that emerge from the substratum to absorb oxygen through lenticels. Lumnitzera racemosa Analysis: Ã ·Leaf description: simple and alternate. Small (up to 7cm), fleshy, spatulate. Indentation at the apex of the leaf, where a salt-secreting gland is visible. Ã ·Bark description: grey, fissured. Ã ·Root type: small knee roots. Ã ·Flower type and description: small white flowers (~2cm). Ã ·Fruit description: green, capsule-shaped fruit. Ã ·Seedling type: non-viviparous. [By Nathania Burrie] [User: TaniaSmartTwit] [[emailprotected]] [March 2002] One way the Black mangrove has adapted to the brackish water is by using a particular salt mechanism: excretion. (See pages 1-2) The leaves are very fleshy and rigid to feel. This is because the plant stores more moisture in the leaves than ordinary mangroves. Definitions Aerial root roots grow from high branches downwards, sometimes without reaching the ground. Buttress root close, tightly curved roots dividing from the trunk. Compound leaf The blade is divided into two or more distinct leaflets. Epiphyte a plant that uses another plant (usually a tree) for support but not for water or nutrients. Some are able to trap their food and water in their leaves and roots. Knee root root emerging suddenly from the ground, in a triangular shape. Lenticel is a loosely packed mass of cells in the bark of a woody plant, visible on the surface of a stem as a powdery spot, through which gaseous exchange occurs. These are inactive during high tide. Lichen an organism consisting of a fungus and an algae or bacterium living in symbiotic association. Lichens can be crust-like, leafy, scaly, or shrubby in form. (Many lichens are extremely sensitive to atmospheric pollution and have been used as pollution indicators!) Pneumatophore is an air vessel; a type of mangrove root that grows above the substratum or mud, and is perpendicular to the main root underground. It transports oxygen, which is vital, into the tissues of the plant. Prop root straight roots often well visible from the ground, dividing from the trunk to the ground Simple leaf not divided into leaflets. Viviparous seedlings are seeds that sprout while still attached to the parent tree. Viviparity and the long-lived propagules allow the mangroves to spread over wide areas. It is a way to adjust to the harsh environment the travelling seeds would otherwise perish in. Indeed, the propagules are nourished on the tree, accumulating the carbohydrates and other compounds required for later autonomous growth. These pre-germinated seeds benefit from the achievement of a structural complexity that will help it acclimate to extreme physical conditions that might otherwise prevent normal seed germination. Transect Ã ·Dominant species: Non-mangroves (26%) Ã ·Dominant mangrove species: Orange mangrove (21.7%) Ã ·Tallest species: Eucalyptus non-mangrove (~11.5m) Ã ·Tallest mangrove species: Orange mangrove (~10m) Ã ·Tallest species by average heights: Rhizophora Stylosa (9m), Orange mangrove (8.8m), Black mangrove (8m) Ã ·Highest substrate scale: 3.5 (sink mid calf / knee) Ã ·Lowest substrate scale: 1 (firm) Ã ·Estimated average substrate scale: ~1.5 (soft to walk on) Ã ·Highest light scale: 5 (most open area) Ã ·Lowest light scale: 1 (mud completely shaded) Ã ·Estimated average light scale: 3 (dappled patches of light) Approximate Species percentages Pie Graph The transect is a linear cut through the mangroves directly from the shore to the woodlands. This transect was taken at Trinity Park Estuary, and can obviously not be drawn as an exemplary model for the standard zonation of mangroves. But the transect is, however, accurate and a representative sample of the mangal region it was taken in. The most common mangrove species of this region is the Orange mangrove or the Bruguiera Gymnorrhiza, representing over 21% of the mangal population. The height of the mangroves ranged from 0.75m to 10m for the Mangrove fern Acrostichum Speciosum to the Bruguiera gymnorrhiza respectively. The average height of the mangroves was 6.4m. Logically, the most open area within the transect was at a regrowth area (2.5m to 7.5m distance from shore) where very small viviparous seedlings were making their way through the anaerobic mud. This patch of mud was probably caused by regular incoming tides washing away young seedlings, making it difficult to cover itself with vegetation. Also, the regular marching of visiting fishermen and excursion students surely didnt help Mangrove swamps used to be regarded as smelly, muddy, mosquito-filled crocodile environments. They were avoided and many were replaced by rubbish tips or drowned in soil for new construction sites. The result is that today, mangrove swamps are lacking. They have finally been recognised as crucial to the ecosystem they represent, and are valued for primary resources in exportation. Ironically, us excursion students were visiting the mangroves to learn about the mangal environment and the way these plants work, although we were also, as a group, contributing to damaging the site by stepping on young growths, ripping samples from the trees etc. The damage caused to the plants was trivial but symbolic. It is important that the new generation learns about the fragility and importance of mangroves throughout the world, for their many significant purposes. They are in fact vanishing in many countries, while it has been learnt over the years and still should be taught to value these places instead of taking them for granted.
Wednesday, January 22, 2020
An analysis of Schools of Psychotherapy as they relate to Anger Management Anger is a basic human emotion that transcends cultural boundaries. However, despite its universality, an exact definition agreed upon by all people is lacking (Norcross & Kobayashi, 1999). Physiologically, brain centers in the amygdala are connected to anger processing. Because the information processing that takes place in this brain structure is primitive, anger can be triggered inappropriately and without the individual's knowledge of the cause. In psychodynamic terms, past events and experiences suppressed in the unconscious can be the source of generated anger. In cognitive-behavioral terms, anger is described as an interaction of behavior, cognition, and physiological arousal (Ambrose & Mayne, 1999). According to Deffenbacher (1999), anger may be aroused by specific external events, a mix of these external events with the anger-related memories they elicit, and internal stimuli such as emotions or thoughts. It results when "events are judged to involve a trespass upon the pers onal domain, an insult to or an assault upon ego identity, a violation of values and expectations, and/or unwarranted interference with goal-directed behavior" (p.297). Two main ways to treat anger involve helping patients to prevent anger activation or helping them to regulate anger manifestation. The former is generally a longer and more difficult approach due to the fact that early emotional behavior patterns are hard to change or eliminate. Therefore, the moderation of anger may prove to be a more effective route of therapy (Ambrose & Mayne, 1999). Many different schools of psychotherapy have addressed the problem of anger. Because of the lack of a universally identic... ...al Psychology, 55(3), 275-282. Messer, S.B. (2001). What Makes Brief Psychodynamic Therapy Time Efficient. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 8, 5-22. McGinn, L.K., & Sanderson, W.C. (2001). What Allows Cognitive Behavioral Therapy to be Brief: Overview, Efficacy, and Crucial Factors Facilitating Brief Treatment. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 8, 23-37. Paivio, S.C. (1999). Experiential Conceptualization and Treatment of Anger. Clinical Psychology, 55(3), 311-324. Phares, E.J., & Trull, T.J. (2001). Clinical Psychology. California: Wadsworth. Van Deurzen, E. (2000). Humanistic-existential approaches. In C.Feltham & I. Horton (Eds.), Handbook of Counselling and Psychotherapy (pp.331-336). London: SAGE Publications.Ambrose, T.K., & Mayne, T.J. (1999). Research Review on Anger in Psychotherapy. Clinical Psychology, 55(3), 353-363.
Tuesday, January 14, 2020
The makers of Ã¢â¬Å"Blood Diamond,Ã¢â¬ an exceptionally thriller starring a most excellent Leonardo DiCaprio, want you to know there may be blood on your hands, specifically your wedding finger. The story involves so-called conflict diamonds, illicitly mined stones that have been used to finance some of the most vicious wars in Africa. If films were judged solely by their good intentions, this one would be best in show. Instead, gilded in money and dripping with sanctimony, confused and mindlessly contradictory, the film is a textbook example of how easily commercialism can trump do-goodism, particularly in Hollywood. The 2006 movie (Blood Diamond) was recently seen by me, this is an American political war thriller film produced and directed by Edward Zwick, starring Leonardo DiCaprio, Jennifer Connelly and Djimon Hounsou. The title refers to blood diamonds, which are diamonds mined in African war zones and sold to finance conflicts, and thereby profit warlords and diamond companies across the world. During Sierra Leone Civil War in 1996Ã¢â¬â2001, the film shows a country torn apart by the struggle between government soldiers and rebels. It also portrays many of the atrocities of that war, including the rebelsÃ¢â¬â¢ amputation of peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s hands to discourage them from voting in upcoming elections. The filmÃ¢â¬â¢s ending, in which a conference is held concerning blood diamonds, is in reference to an actual meeting that took place in Kimberley, South Africa in 2000 and led to the Kimberley Process Certification Scheme, which seeks to certify the origin of rough diamonds in order to curb the trade in conflict diamonds. In the face of the evidence, it is impossible to list any benefits for blood diamonds. They have been condemned by the United Nations. The sheer scale of the civil war in Sierra Leone they helped to fund, in which an estimated 120,000 people were killed from 1991 to 2001, proves that these illegitimate diamonds do nothing but cause human suffering. In February 2011, Charles TaylorÃ¢â¬â¢s trial before the Special Court for Sierra Leone heard that he received Ã¢â¬Å"mayonnaise jarsÃ¢â¬ full of blood diamonds from the Revolutionary United Front, providing them with the arms they needed in return. The U. S. appens to be the largest consumer of conflict diamonds, purchasing over $33. 7 billion dollarsÃ¢â¬â¢ worth of the rocks in 2005. Wondering what conflict diamonds are? IÃ¢â¬â¢m no fawning fan of DiCaprio, but the film Ã¢â¬Å"Blood DiamondÃ¢â¬ is nowhere near as fictional as weÃ¢â¬â¢d like it to be. Conflict diamonds involve abuse, corruption and death. There goes that gorgeous, shimmery, sparkling stone set in platinum IÃ¢â¬â¢ve been dreaming about. This movie and together with some other researches I did has made me to come into a conclusion and a question if I would ever wear a diamond. Here are important reasons, WeÃ¢â¬â¢ve been conditioned to want a diamond. Who isnÃ¢â¬â¢t tired of the advertising and marketing ploys used to brainwash us into believing our value as women rests on the size of ourÃ¢â¬ ¦gem? (Toss that in with measurements and marital status and weÃ¢â¬â¢ve got an endless supply of not-good-enough. ) Marketers have thrown us a giant, glittering bone, and watched the profits pile up as weÃ¢â¬â¢ve chased, fetched and rolled over in order to conform to what weÃ¢â¬â¢ve been conditioned to believe is the only acceptable standard. Diamond prices have been artificially inflated by the diamond cartel. The average diamond sold in the U. S. has been over-graded in quality by 2 grades, and the average U. S. couple pays twice what they should for an engagement ring. Do i really want to enter into a lifelong commitment with a man whoÃ¢â¬â¢s willing to waste his hard-earned cash on a diamond, especially when said diamond is ridiculously overpriced? Diamond mines damage the environment. This is important, even though itÃ¢â¬â¢s true of all types of mining, not just diamond mining. Mines are dangerous for workers (including children) and threaten our planet, too. I wish there were a way to dig that deep without so much damage. A diamond is not forever. Nothing is forever. Engagements, marriages, jobs, you name it. If they happen to last a long time, then you are indeed a very lucky person. Why do we kid ourselves into believing that a sparkling rock, delivered to us on the backs of the abused, purchased for more than itÃ¢â¬â¢s worth, marketed for more than it means and obtained at the expense of our own dear planet will keep love alive?.
Monday, January 6, 2020
Electrical conductivity is the measure of the amount of electrical current a material can carry or its ability to carry a current. Electrical conductivity is also known as specific conductance. Conductivity is an intrinsic property of a material. Units of Electrical Conductivity Electrical conductivity is denoted by the symbol ÃÆ' and has SI units of siemens per meter (S/m). In electrical engineering, the Greek letter Ã º is used. Sometimes the Greek letter Ã ³ represents conductivity. In water, conductivity is often reported as specific conductance, which is a measure compared to that of pure water at 25Ã °C. Relationship Between Conductivity and Resistivity Electrical conductivity (ÃÆ') is the reciprocal of the electrical resistivity (Ã ): ÃÆ' 1/Ã where resistivity for a material with a uniform cross section is: Ã RA/l where R is the electrical resistance, A is the cross-sectional area, and l is the length of the material Electrical conductivity gradually increases in a metallic conductor as the temperature is lowered. Below a critical temperature, resistance in superconductors drops to zero, such that an electrical current could flow through a loop of superconducting wire with no applied power. In many materials, conduction occurs by band electrons or holes. In electrolytes, entire ions move, carrying their net electrical charge. In electrolyte solutions, the concentration of the ionic species is a key factor in the conductivity of the material. Materials With Good and Poor Electrical Conductivity Metals and plasma are examples of materials with high electrical conductivity. The element that is the best electrical conductor is silver -- a metal. Electrical insulators, such as glass and pure water, have poor electrical conductivity. Most of the nonmetals on the periodic table are poor electrical and thermal conductors. The conductivity of semiconductors is intermediate between that of an insulator and a conductor. Examples of excellent conductors include: SilverCopperGoldAluminumZincNickelBrass Examples of poor electrical conductors include: RubberGlassPlasticDry WoodDiamondAir Pure Water (not salt water, which is conductive)